Table of Contents
Why is it important to determine whether or not a bacterial organism has a capsule?
The capsule is considered a virulence factor because it enhances the ability of bacteria to cause disease (e.g. prevents phagocytosis). The capsule can protect cells from engulfment by eukaryotic cells, such as macrophages. A capsule-specific antibody may be required for phagocytosis to occur.
What is the purpose of the bacterial capsule?
The capsule is composed of polysaccharides that cover the cell wall, which is made up of peptidoglycan and teichoic acid, characterizing the classic gram positive structure; It acts as the principal antiphagocytic and protective element that prevents access of the leukocytes to the underlying cell wall elements.
What is a bacterial capsule and what is its purpose?
Capsules can protect a bacterial cell from ingestion and destruction by white blood cells (phagocytosis). While the exact mechanism for escaping phagocytosis is unclear, it may occur because capsules make bacterial surface components more slippery, helping the bacterium to escape engulfment by phagocytic cells.
What is the importance of the capsule in the food industry?
Capsules help the organism adhere to host cells. The capsule also facilitates and maintains bacterial colonization of biological (e.g. teeth) and inanimate (e.g. prosthetic heart valves) surfaces through the formation of biofilms.
What are 3 methods used to identify bacteria?
Traits that can be valuable aids to identification are combinations of cell shape and size, gram stain reaction, acid-fast reaction, and special structures including endospores, granules, and capsules.
Is capsule present in all bacteria?
Not all bacterial species produce capsules; however, the capsules of encapsulated pathogens are often important determinants of virulence. Encapsulated species are found among both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
What is the main function of the capsule?
It has several functions: promote bacterial adhesion to surfaces or interaction with other organisms; act as a permeability barrier, as a defense mechanism against phagocytosis and/or as a nutrient reserve. Among pathogens, capsule formation often correlates with pathogenicity.
What are 5 ways to identify bacteria?
When identifying bacteria in the laboratory, the following characteristics are used: Gram staining, shape, presence of a capsule, bonding tendency, motility, respiration, growth medium, and whether it is intra- or extracellular.
How do we identify bacteria?
Bacteria are identified routinely by morphological and biochemical tests, supplemented as needed by specialized tests such as serotyping and antibiotic inhibition patterns. Newer molecular techniques permit species to be identified by their genetic sequences, sometimes directly from the clinical specimen.
Which bacteria are spore forming?
Spore-forming bacteria include Bacillus (aerobic) and Clostridium (anaerobic) species. The spores of these species are dormant bodies that carry all the genetic material as is found in the vegetative form, but do not have an active metabolism.