What structures are involved in swallowing?

What structures are involved in swallowing?

The structures involved in deglutition include the tongue, hard and soft palate, pharyngeal muscles, esophagus, and gastroesophageal junction. Coordination of swallowing is controlled by the trigeminal (CN V), facial (CN VII), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), vagus (X), and hypoglossal (CN XII) nerves and their nuclei.

What is the swallowing process called?

The process of swallowing, also known as deglutition, involves the movement of substances from the mouth (oral cavity) to the stomach via the pharynx and esophagus.

What controls swallowing in the brain?

The voluntary initiation of swallowing takes place in special areas of the cerebral cortex of the brain called the precentral gyrus (also called the primary motor area), posterior-inferior gyrus, and the frontal gyrus.

Is swallowing an autonomic reflex?

The swallowing reflex is an elaborate involuntary reflex that involves a swallowing center, or a swallowing pattern generator, in the brainstem. Once activated, the swallowing center neurons send patterned discharges of inhibition and excitation to motor nuclei of the cranial nerves.

What nerves are involved in swallowing?

The primary nerves involved include CN V3, IX, X, XII, the ansa cervicalis, and the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Pharyngeal sensation is achieved chiefly via CN IX. The upper esophagus is innervated by CN X, while the splanchnic plexus and CN X innervate the lower esophagus.

What are the 4 phases of swallowing?

There are 4 phases of swallowing:

  • The Pre-oral Phase. – Starts with the anticipation of food being introduced into the mouth – Salivation is triggered by the sight and smell of food (as well as hunger)
  • The Oral Phase.
  • The Pharyngeal Phase.
  • The Oesophageal Phase.

What are the signs of dysphagia?

Other signs of dysphagia include:

  • coughing or choking when eating or drinking.
  • bringing food back up, sometimes through the nose.
  • a sensation that food is stuck in your throat or chest.
  • persistent drooling of saliva.
  • being unable to chew food properly.
  • a gurgly, wet-sounding voice when eating or drinking.

How does the swallowing process work?

When you swallow, a flap called the epiglottis moves to block the entrance of food particles into your larynx and lungs. The muscles of the larynx pull upward to assist with this movement. They also tightly close during swallowing. That prevents food from entering your lungs.

What part of the brain controls involuntary swallowing?

medulla oblongata
Swallowing movements are produced by a central pattern generator located in the medulla oblongata.

What are three disorders that cause swallowing?

Neurological conditions that can cause swallowing difficulties are: stroke (the most common cause of dysphagia); traumatic brain injury; cerebral palsy; Parkinson disease and other degenerative neurological disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease), multiple sclerosis.

Does the vagus nerve affect swallowing?

The vagal nerve (VN), the tenth cranial nerve, provides both motor and sensory innervation, and plays an important role in the pharyngeal phase of swallowing [4, 6].

Which nerve does not play a role in swallowing?

FALSE. The ACCESSORY NERVE is known as cranial nerve XI. Which nerve does NOT play a role in swallowing? Olfactory, The glossopharyngeal, hypoglossal, and vagus nerves all play a role in swallowing.

Which is part of the body controls swallowing?

Swallowing is a set of coordinated muscle movements that control the mouth, the back of the throat (pharynx) and the food tube (esophagus). Swallowing occurs without us even thinking about it, yet it is a complex and vital function, as it is very important to eating and social interaction. Trouble with swallowing refers to two problems:

How does the body breathe when swallowing food?

When the oral phase signals that swallowing is underway, the body breathes in. During the subsequent exhalation, the food portion is driven to the back of the tongue and the exhalation stops and the body holds his or her breath for two seconds. The swallow then passes the pharynx and breathing is resumed with a continued exhalation.

How does the digestive system help break down food?

The digestive tract also contains a layer of smooth muscle that helps break down food and move it along the tract. Two “solid” digestive organs, the liver and the pancreas, produce digestive juices that reach the intestine through small tubes called ducts. The gallbladder stores the liver’s digestive juices until they are needed in the intestine.

Where does the command to Swallow come from?

When something is to be swallowed the command is sent first to the Nucleus Ambiguus (NA) an efferent nucleus which, in its turn, sends the instruction to swallow to the major components of the swallowing musculature via the motor, downward-transmitting, efferent nerve pathways.