Which of the following is the most common cause of hypoxic cellular injury?

Which of the following is the most common cause of hypoxic cellular injury?

Ischemia is the most common cause of hypoxia. Chemical Agents: Many drugs, poisons and chemicals can result in cell injury.

How does hypoxia lead to cell injury?

Many studies have found that hypoxia mediates cell injury and even cell death mainly through oxidative stress, inflammation, acidosis, and apoptosis. Apoptosis, as the main mechanism of regulating cell death, plays a very crucial role in hypoxia-induced cellular injury [4].

Which cell organelle is first damaged in hypoxia?

1. Mitochondria act as signaling organelles in low-oxygen conditions. Hypoxia (0.5–3% oxygen) increases mitochondrial ROS that activate transcription of adaptive genes. Anoxia (0–0.5% oxygen) initiates mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) to activate cell death.

Is hypoxic cell injury reversible?

Cell injury can be reversible or irreversible. Hypoxia is the most important cause of cell injury. Irreversible cell injury can be recognized by changes in the appearance of the nucleus and rupture of the cell membrane.

Which of the following is an important result of hypoxic injury?

Hypoxic injury results in an inadequate flow of nutrients and oxygen to the cell. If tissue perfusion continues to be insufficient, hypoxia occurs and the cell resorts to anaerobic metabolic pathways for energy production.

Which organ is most sensitive to hypoxia?

Effects. The organs most affected by hypoxia are the brain, the heart, and the liver. If the hypoxia is severe, irreversible damage can begin within four minutes of the onset. Coma, seizures, and death may occur in severe cases.

What are the symptoms of hypoxic brain injury?

If the cerebral hypoxia is mild, there will be problems with concentration, attention, co-ordination and short-term memory, which may be relatively subtle to begin with. There may also be headache, light-headedness, dizziness, an increase in breathing rate and sweating.

Is hypoxic brain injury permanent?

The answer depends–hypoxic (and anoxic) brain injuries often result in serious and permanent injury. However, proper treatment can help minimize the damage and manage symptoms caused by the brain injury. In this sense, a recovery is sometimes possible.

How is hypoxic injury diagnosed?

Your doctor can diagnose brain hypoxia by examining your symptoms, recent activities, and medical history. A physical exam and tests are usually part of the process. The tests may include: a blood test that shows the amount of oxygen in your blood.

Which part of brain is most resistant to hypoxia?

Besides its immediate effects, hypoxia causes delayed functional and metabolic disturbances which may even progress to cell death. The brain regions most sensitive to this type of injury are parts of the hippocampus, the dorsolateral caudate nucleus and the reticular nucleus of thalamus.

What is the body’s response to hypoxia?

In most tissues of the body, the response to hypoxia is vasodilation. By widening the blood vessels, the tissue allows greater perfusion. By contrast, in the lungs, the response to hypoxia is vasoconstriction. This is known as hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, or “HPV”.

Why does anaerobic metabolism occur at the cellular level?

Patrick J. McNamara, Afif El-Khuffash, in Fetal and Neonatal Physiology (Fifth Edition), 2017. Anaerobic metabolism at the cellular level occurs when oxygen transport and tissue oxygenation are compromised. This can be a result of hypoxemia, anemia, inadequate systemic blood flow, or a combination of these factors.

Which is the most common cause of hypoxic cell injury?

The most common cause of hypoxic injury is: Ischemia (Hypoxic injury results from a lack of oxygen. The most common cause of this type of cell injury is ischemia, a decrease in blood flow to the tissue.) A direct result of anaerobic metabolism during hypoxic cell injury is: Metabolic acidosis

How does the body respond to a hypoxic challenge?

Several responses are developed by cells and tissues faced with a hypoxic challenge: 1) increased ventilation and cardiac output, 2) a switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, 3) promotion of improved vascularization, and 4) enhancement of the O 2 carrying capacity of the blood.

How does hypoxic injury cause decrease in protein synthesis?

A decrease in protein synthesis (Ribosomes are the primary site for protein synthesis. Hypoxic injury and cellular swelling result in dilation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, causing the ribosomes to detach. Loss of the site for protein synthesis results in decreased protein production.)